Hoken Juroppo (宝拳十六法) “16 Fist Methods”
These 16 fists cover the most widely used types of fists used across the various lineages we study. This is not a complete lists of all fists studied as some schools have additional fists. It’s important to note that a “fist” here isn’t just the hands, but any part of the body used to strike.
- Fudoken (不動拳) “Immovable Fist”: The “Fudoken” is a standard fist; the fingers are coiled and clenched into the palm, and the thumb is folded over the index and middle finger.
- Shikanken (指環拳) “Finger Ring Fist”: Similar to a Fudoken, the Shikanken has the first knuckle of the fingers extended, while the thumb is tucked behind the second knuckle of the index and middle finger.
- Shitoken (指刀拳) “Finger Blade Fist” / Boshiken “Blade-Tip Fist”: A Shitoken is using the tip of the thumb to strike; from a Shikanken, move the thumb and press upon the outside of the first knuckle of the index finger, slightly protruding beyond the knuckle.
- Koppoken (骨法拳) “Bone Method Fist”: The fist of a Koppoken is virtually identical to a Shitoken, except the protruding thumb knuckle is used to strike.
- Kitenken (起転拳) “Cause Rolling Fist” / Shuto “Hand Blade”: A Kitenken or Shuto, is using the edge of the hand to strike. The fingers are bent 90 degrees and the thumb is pressed into the first knuckle of the index finger. The pinky-side edge of the hand is used to strike.
- Shitanken (指端拳) “Finger End Fist”: Virtually the same as a Kitenken or Shuto, the tips of the fingers are used to strike. A variation of this is to fold the pinky and thumb inward to form a Sanshitanken.
- Happaken (八葉拳) “Eight Leaf Fist”: A Happaken is using the palm of the hand to strike/slap.
- Shakoken (蝦蛄拳) “Mantis Crab Fist”: The name Shakoken is derived from the Mantis Crab, known for it’s ability to cut skin. The hand is in a claw shape, and when striking is used to grab and tear flesh.
- Shishinken “Finger Needle Fist”: This is using an individual finger to strike – typically and orifice or area of soft tissue.
- Kikakuken (鬼角拳) “Demon Horn Fist”: Kikakuken is using the crown of the head to strike. The body is used to propel the strike while the neck is held in alignment to prevent injury/whiplash.
- Shukiken “Waking Arm Fist”: A Shukiken is using the pad of the elbow to strike a target.
- Sokkiken (足起拳) “Foot Raised Fist”: Sokkiken are using the knees to strike.
- Sokuyakuken (足躍拳) “Foot Jump Fist”: A sokuyakuken is using the sole of the foot – particularly the heel – to strike.
- Sokugyakuken (足逆拳) “Foot Reverse Fist”: A Sokugyakuken is using either the toes or the instep/bridge of the foot to strike. It is the reverse of a Sokuyakuken.
- Taiken (体拳) “Body Fist”: Taiken is where the body is used to strike, such as the shoulders or hips.
- Shizenken (自然拳) “Natural Fist”: Shizenken are natural variations to the kens, as well as including biting and scratching.